According to studies and studies carried out by the Language Development and Development Agency, there are currently 718 regional languages in Indonesia. Of these, only 12 are actively used, while 625 need to be tested for vitality. Meanwhile, there are five critical regional languages and at least eight regional languages that have become extinct.
In the process of protecting regional languages, there are at least five steps that begin with mapping to examine languages in terms of distribution and kinship. Once the mapping is done, the next step is a vitality study, which is a way to test the vitality of a language, whether it will have a long life from the point of view of its users and speakers, as well as from the point of view of political view. government intention to inherit regional languages through official institutions.
Only then is preservation done to compile the linguistic system. And revitalization, for languages considered to be in decline or in danger of extinction. And finally the recording of the language.
However, in implementing efforts to protect regional languages, several challenges arise.
According to the director of the Kemendikbudristek Language Development and Development Agency, Prof. E Aminuddin Aziz said that there are at least four challenges, namely the attitude of native speakers, migration and mobility, interbreeding and globalization.
The linguistic attitude of native speakers overlaps with how native speakers consider whether the language they use is still important or not.
“The two are migration and mobility. For example, there is a movement of people from one region to another, and when they no longer use their local language, the language will die on its own. Like moving from village to city, or even to another country, ”said Prof. Amin, in a virtual speech on the urgency of preserving regional languages as national wealth and supporting the national language, which is part of the Media Indonesia Language and Literature Festival 2021, Wednesday (10/27).
The phenomenon of interbreeding which occurs between individuals of different regional origins is also a challenge for the protection of regional languages. “It will ’cause’ conflict within the family. For example, in what language do they want to raise the child, is it the mother’s or father’s language or another language?
Another challenge, he added, is globalization which leads to monolingualism, namely the predominance of the use of a language in the media used today. (M-2)